This is a map of the countries that had a great impact on the Post Modern era. To review, attempt to analyze the significance of each on the countries/empires on this map.

Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment

Rapid advances in science altered the understanding of the universe and the natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at local, regional, and global levels.

1. Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology.

  • The Green Revolution produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture.

  • Energy technologies including the use of oil and nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.
2. As the global population expanded at an unprecedented rate, humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.
  • Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.
  • Global warming (climate change) was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.
3. Disease, scientific innovations, and conflict led to demographic shifts.
Tuberculosis Prevalence in 2009

People living with HIV 2009

Alzheimers and Dementia Cases, 2009. Darker the more cases

Diabetes Cases Worldwide, 2000 (darker means higher number)


Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences

At the beginning of the twentieth century, a European-dominated global political order existed, which also included the United States, Russia, and Japan. Over the course of the century, peoples and states around the world challenged this order in ways that sought to redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires, while those peoples and states in power attempted to maintain the status quo. Other peoples and states sought to overturn the political order itself. These challenges to, and the attempts to maintain, the political order manifested themselves in an unprecedented level of conflict with high human casualties. In the context of these conflicts, many regimes in both older and newer states struggled with maintaining political stability and were challenged by internal and external factors, including ethnic and religious conflicts, secessionist movements, territorial partitions, economic dependency, and the legacies of colonialism.

1. Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the twentieth century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.
  • The older land-based Ottoman, Russian, and Qing empires collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors (Economic hardship, political and social discontent, technological stagnation, military defeat).

2. Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states.


  • Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism.

3. Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.

4. Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.

The sources of global conflict in the first half of the century varied. Required examples of the sources of global conflict:
  • Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan
  • Competition for resources
  • Ethnic conflict
  • Great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
  • Nationalist ideologies
  • The economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression.
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.

  • The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.
5. Although conflict dominated much of the twentieth century, many individuals and groups — including states — opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.
Picasso's Guernica
Thich Quang Duc's Self Immolation
Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.


  • More movements used violence (IRA, ETA, Al Qaeda)against civilians to achieve political aims.

Key Concept 6.3 New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture

The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of state in the domestic economy fluctuated, and new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationships between humans and the environment, and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in, and were reinforced by, new forms of cultural production. Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions.

1. States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the twentieth century.
  • At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life (New Deal, Fascist Corporatist economy).

2. States, communities, and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.
  • Regional trade agreements (European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur) created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.

3. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.

IV.Popular and consumer culture became global.
  • Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film (Reggae, Bollywood).
  • Here is a clip from a Bollywood Dance scene during the festival of Holi... ENJOY!